These are sometimes categorized as intra- and inter-media fragmentation respectively (Napoli, 2003), though, as digital technologies make it easier for both content and users to move across platforms, such distinctions seem less important. Similarly, DRM also threatens access to many works over the long-term because data stored in proprietary DRM formats (whether it be songs, software, electronic books or other data) are at much greater risk of being lost once the playback media is no longer available, locking away the protected data forever (University of Ottawa, 2011).
IPRs in mobile communications can be analyzed with regard to exclusive rights that mobile operators acquire from content producers and license holders, copyright protected data that mobile users can consume or download onto their mobile phones, and the potential file sharing of copyright protected mobile data over mobile peer-to-peer platforms (International Telecommunication Union, 2003b). Libraries are incorporating mobile technology into their services, for example, online access to their catalogues via mobile phones; Short Message Service (sms) alerts about outstanding loans, new acquisitions, information literacy training, changes in opening hours, workshops and other services. Radio stations provide online information about traffic congestion, news, weather reports, community-based activities, social upliftment and development programs and other useful information.
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―This means that mobile technologies serve to both address and to complicate our notions of the digital divide, the gulf between the Internet technology haves and have-nots‖ (Watters, 2011, paragraph 4). Since most Africans will never own a laptop, Kindle or iPad, the mobile phone is key to sustained ̳information on the move‘2 in Africa. Even before the Web, back in the 1970s, most graduate programs that studied communications and media were pointed towards the future. (I actually had come to savor it by this time, but that was likely because I had gone through my period of frustration with McLuhan's style when I'd first read Understanding Media and The Gutenberg Galaxy 1962 as an undergraduate at City College in New York City in the 1960s.
I think I know what's going on. For more than a decade now, I've been spending a lot of time online, searching and surfing and sometimes adding to the great databases of the Internet. Internet users tend to be wealthier, educated and young, and this is also true in relation to the adoption of new communication technologies such as cell phones (Chadwick, 2006; ComScore, 2007). In 2007, a survey found that 30 million internet users in the US accessed the web from a mobile device (ComScore, 2007), with phone users regularly upgrading their cell phones these figures are certain to rise.
News offerings may include prime time news, such as CBS News with Katie Coerce,” entertainment news such as NBC's Access Hollywood,” news magazines such as the CBS program 60 Minutes” and ABC's '20/20,' news interview programs such as NBC's Meet the Press, early morning programs, such as ABC's 'Good Morning America.” Creative Service Departments are responsible for the on-air design and visual identity of the network or channel, along with the creation and execution of all branding and promotional materials. Communication theorists identified four functions of electronic media programs: to inform, to entertain, to persuade, and to transmit the culture from one generation to the next. Perhaps one of the clearest places to see the convergence of media writing skills is in development of scripts intended to become multimedia products such as CD-ROM games and educational programs, corporate training video discs, interactive movies and Web pages.
Insurance companies, basing decisions on data banks to which they have privileged, sometimes exclusive, access, can deny people access to insurance policies, or arbitrarily set rates at prohibitively high levels. Cyberspace is a dreamed world, but the dreamers dream it through the mediation of computer hardware, fibre optic cable, complex telecommunications networks, and specific social and economic systems that support and deliver these technologies. But McLuhan concluded that: "We can afford to use only those portions of them that enhance the perception of our technologies and their psychic and social consequences." As a society under the groove and roof of current technology and techniques, we need to understand it thoroughly and completely and begin to master its cybernetics and reduce entropy in the channels.